Management by objectives

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An effective organisation is where the management adopts a strategy of extraction of the best behaviour from the employees, concentrating on enabling a working atmosphere where teamwork is proliferate. The concepts of management by objectives was developed by Peter Drucker during 1950s and it has been written on extensively thereafter. The definition of management by objectives is given by Drucker as the process of developing aims in a company to provide a sense of direction to the workforce. It is also defined as the process of developing the objectives enabling the employees to understand their contribution at the workplace. Further Drucker indicates that management by objectives is defining the roles and responsibilities for the employees helping them to define their own tasks which contributes to a certain course of action for individual employees, employees as a collective and for the organisation. Hence the concept of management by objectives is to provide guidance to the employees and hence enabling the delivery of best performance, able to achieve targets within the allocated time frames.

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Requirement of management by objectives

 

The need for management by objectives concept was due to the fact that employees were not able to properly understand their duties and roles and the specific contribution to the organisation. Key roles and responsibilities developed for the employees according to Drucker increases their interest in work. Further there are studies to indicate that employees are not clear about the organisation’s expectations from them. Recent research studies have found a correlation to suggest that management by objectives improves employee satisfaction.

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Hence the need for management by objectives is due to the following.

 

  1. It enables the employees to understand their role at the organisation.
  2. Responsibilities are assigned based on employee interest, specialisation and educational qualifications.
  3. Employees are clear on organisation’s expectations about them.
  4. Contributes to employee satisfaction.
  5. The role of employees are clear and hence there is greater commitment from them as they feel indispensable to the company. This leads to better loyalty.
  6. Management by objectives improves the communication between the employees, between the employees and supervisors and the management.
  7. A hierarchical organisation is the end result of management by objectives, but bureaucracy seems to be a hurdle as later research studies have proved. Nevertheless the same research studies also indicate better transparency at different levels of management. Every employee will have their immediate supervisors to whom they report their activities.
  8. Management by objectives enables benchmarking of employees, setting targets and measurement of achievements of the employee.
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Limitations and disadvantages of management by objectives

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The limitations of management by objectives is mainly stemming from the process of implementation.

  1. Management by objectives cannot be implemented in every organisation due to the culture and working conditions as these factors cannot be changed overnight. Culture and working conditions require an organisation wide change and implementation of management by objectives might derail the proper functioning of the company.
  2. There is more emphasis on targets and objectives for the employees and the company expects the employees to meet their targets. However even when management by objectives are implemented, the organisation does not seem to take care of the employee factors. It is more connected with achieving targets and does not enable employees to feel satisfied based on their work done. Deadlines and targets are the main basis of management by objectives which treats the employees as machines. This removes some of the advantages of management by objectives concept and its ultimate results.
  3. Management by objectives measures the employee based on comparisons and hence benchmarking. There could be increased politics and strain between the employees. This can lead to conflict at the workplace.
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Assignment writers uk

Any student requiring help in assignments or dissertations on the topic of Digital Business Management e-business can contact me at info@assignmentwriters.com.  You can also have a look at the way I work with the students on my home page – www.assignmentwriters.com.